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And But Or So Because

These words are known as connectives or conjunctions.

We use these words to join sentences together.



Tom went to the shop. He bought some sweets. (2 short sentences)

Tom went to the shop and he bought some sweets. (2 short sentences added together by a conjunction to form 1 longer sentence)




  • We brushed our teeth. We ate breakfast.

  • We brushed our teeth and ate breakfast. (don’t have to say ‘and we…’)

  • My brother is 19. He is studying at Manchester university.

  • My brother is 19 and is studying at Manchester university. (don’t have to say ‘and he…’)

  • Tom has forgotten his PE kit. Tom has forgotten his pencil case.

  • Tom has forgotten his PE kit and his pencil case.

  • Mum bought a new car. She loves it.

  • Mum bought a new car and she loves it.


In lists we don’t keep repeating ‘and’. We use commas (,). Before the last item of the list we use ‘and’.




  • I went to shop at I bought apples, bananas, bread, milk, juice and

  • I am going on holiday with mum, dad, sister, brother and

  • Mum has gone to the supermarket, dad has gone to work and Emma has gone to her friend’s house.

  • For breakfast I ate eggs, toast, beans and hash browns.





  • Louisa wanted to play outside but it was raining.

  • Josh lives in Scotland but he doesn’t like it.

  • I bought a new dress but I don’t like it.

  • I like this house but it only has 2 bedrooms.

  • We were going to go to Blackpool but it started raining.




  • Do you want to stay at grandma’s house or Emma’s house this weekend?

  • Do you want to go bowling or to the cinema?

  • Do you want to go the supermarket or are you too tired?

  • Have a cup of tea or a coffee.

  • We’re going to order Chinese food or Italian food.

  • We want to go on holiday to Portugal or



When we use the conjunction ‘so’ we use it to show the result of something.
Example: It was raining so I closed the window. (As a result of it being rainy, I closed the window)


  • I was so thirsty so I drank a glass of cold water.

  • She was hungry so she ordered food.

  • The dishwasher was full so I turned it on.

  • I missed the bus so dad dropped me to school.

  • Kevin’s phone got stolen so he bought a new one.

  • He’s always going out so he doesn’t have a lot of money.



When we use the conjunction ‘because’ we use it to show the reason for something.

Example: She was crying because mum shouted at her. (The reason for her crying was because of mum)


  • Kate was late to school because she missed the bus.

  • Phil’s knee was grazed because he fell down.

  • He got in trouble because he didn’t do his homework.

  • Mum didn’t cook dinner because she was busy working.

  • Saarah felt sick because she ate too much chocolate.


Some sentences can have more than one conjunction.


  • It was late and I was hungry so I drove to the supermarket to buy ice cream.

  • I love London but I wouldn’t like to live there because of the travelling.

  • I want to go on holiday in Summer to Malaysia or Thailand because I’ve heard it’s very nice there.

  • She woke up late so she had no time to have breakfast and she was late to school.

  • Mum was bored and wanted to do something so she decided to cook pasta.

  • Sue made a cake and went to the shop to buy a gift because it was her brother’s birthday.



And But Or So Because Exercises

Complete the following sentences.


  • I went to grandma’s house and ____________________________________________________

  • Emma invited me to her house and ________________________________________________

  • I was going to go on holiday this year but ____________________________________________

  • Josh was suppose to come to my house but __________________________________________

  • She was either going to go on holiday abroad or ______________________________________

  • We’re going to watch a movie or __________________________________________________

  • We were all hungry so ___________________________________________________________

  • Tim was late to school so _________________________________________________________

  • I cooked dinner because __________________________________________________________

  • I didn’t want to go to the wedding because ___________________________________________


Look at the sentences below. Then think of a way to join them together using the conjunction ‘and’


Example: I went to the shop. Mum told me to buy a loaf of bread.. = I went to the shop and I bought a loaf of bread.


  • Tom woke up early. Dad made him a big breakfast. __________________________________________________________________________________

  • Emma baked a chocolate cake. Josh baked a carrot cake. __________________________________________________________________________________

  • I went shopping with Lola. I had to buy a dress for my sister’s wedding. ___________________________________________________________________________________


Fill in the missing gap with the appropriate conjunction (and, but, or, so, because)


  • Do you want to go on holiday abroad _____ do you just want to go somewhere local?

  • My sister is married ________ she lives in Spain _________ her husband has a well paid job there.

  • Susan has a very nice house _______ she has no garden.

  • Emma wants me to go with her shopping ____________ she needs my help picking a dress for the party.

  • I want to live in London when I’m older _________ there’s so many things to do there.

  • Me ______ my brother stay at my grandma’s house every weekend ______ my parents can have some peace without us.

  • We were tired _______ we went to sleep early.


Challenge: Create 5 lists using commas. Remember to use ‘and’ before the last thing.



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