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Electrical Circuits

  • Current = flow of charge around a circuit. Only flows if a circuit is complete
  • Moving charges = negative electrons, which flow in the opposite direction of conventional current (always positive to negative).
  • Battery acts like a pump in a circuit = provides the driving force to push the charge around the circuit. Driving force = potential difference
  • Increase potential difference = more current flows
  • Several batteries = bigger potential difference
  • Potential difference = voltage
  • Resistance = anything in a circuit which slows down current flow. Measured in ohms.
  • Potential difference same = higher resistance = smaller current
  • Conductors = components and materials that electricity can easily travel through like metal
  • Insulators = components and materials that don’t allow electric charges to pass through easily
  • Lower resistance = better conductors
  • Higher resistance = better insulator

How long have you…? (present perfect 4) Exercises




Use the information given to create questions beginning with ‘How long…?’

• It is snowing.

• The weather is shining.

• John and Kate are married.

• My brother has gone on holiday.

• My aunty and uncle live in Canada.

• My sister is a teacher.

• I work at the chemist.

• I’ve known Susan since I was a baby.

• Jonathan is learning to speak to Mandarin.




Fill in the missing gaps in the sentences using the present perfect (=has/have + past participle)

• I have known Kate a long time.

• My brother has been playing the piano he was 11 years old.

• My mum and dad on holiday to America. They

gone since last Sunday.

• I Ben and Emma since primary school.

We to the same primary and secondary school.

• My sister learning to speak French because she
is going to France next month.



Use the appropriate words in the missing gaps.

have you lived       lives      to

has been       works        have known

I have bought       have worked.

• My sister in Spain. She is studying Spanish

with her friend Rosie. I Rosie since I was 5.

• Spencer like with Jamie. They have worked

together for 2 years.

• How long in Australia?

• a new dress for prom.

• He to Thorpe park.



Challenge: Create 4 of your own questions beginning with ‘How long……?’








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