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  • Pressure = how much force is put on a certain area
  • Small pressure = given force over a big area
  • Large pressure = given force over a small area
  • Pressure is measured in N/m² (newtons per metre squared) OR Pa (pascals)
  • 1 N/m² = 1 Pa
  • Atmospheric pressure = around us always
  • Weight of atmosphere is pushing against us, but we don’t feel it as we are used to it.
  • Lower you are (sea level) = more atmosphere above you = atmospheric pressure increases
  • High up (mountains) = less atmosphere above you= atmospheric pressure decreases
  • Atmospheric pressure at sea level = 100,000 Pa
  • Pressures in liquid increasewith depth . This is due to the weight of the water above.
  • If an object is placed in water, the object experiences water pressure from all directions. As pressures increase with depth the forces acting up at the bottom of the object is greater than the force acting down at the top of the object. Overall upwards force = up thrust.
  • Up thrust = objects weight = object will float.
  • Up thrust is less than the objects weight = object will sink


How long have you…? (present perfect 4) Exercises




Use the information given to create questions beginning with ‘How long…?’

• It is snowing.

• The weather is shining.

• John and Kate are married.

• My brother has gone on holiday.

• My aunty and uncle live in Canada.

• My sister is a teacher.

• I work at the chemist.

• I’ve known Susan since I was a baby.

• Jonathan is learning to speak to Mandarin.




Fill in the missing gaps in the sentences using the present perfect (=has/have + past participle)

• I have known Kate a long time.

• My brother has been playing the piano he was 11 years old.

• My mum and dad on holiday to America. They

gone since last Sunday.

• I Ben and Emma since primary school.

We to the same primary and secondary school.

• My sister learning to speak French because she
is going to France next month.



Use the appropriate words in the missing gaps.

have you lived       lives      to

has been       works        have known

I have bought       have worked.

• My sister in Spain. She is studying Spanish

with her friend Rosie. I Rosie since I was 5.

• Spencer like with Jamie. They have worked

together for 2 years.

• How long in Australia?

• a new dress for prom.

• He to Thorpe park.



Challenge: Create 4 of your own questions beginning with ‘How long……?’








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With the decision to try.” Gail Dever

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