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Study Guide : Diet


As part of our diets we need to ensure we get all of our

nutrients. Nutrients are substances needed to keep living

organisms alive. As part of a human diet there are seven key

nutrients that we need as part of our diet.



Use in the body



To provide energy for the body, acts as a short term energy supply

Bread, pasta and potatoes


Helps build muscle for growth and repair

Meat, eggs and dairy products

Lipids (fats and oils)

Provides energy and also a long term energy supply

Butter and oil


Needed to maintain health

Milk provides calcium and meat provides iron


Needed to maintain health

Fruit and vegetable

Dietary Fibre

To help move food through the gut

Whole wheat products, fruit and vegetables


Needed for cells



Energy requirements

The energy requirements of a person differ depending on

these three factors

  • Gender
  • Age
  • Daily activity

When trying to assess how many calories you should be

consuming, you should always look at the side of food packets,

as all the nutritional information will be displayed

For example, a man should be aiming for approximately

2600 kcal per day and a women 2200kcal per day


However complications can occur when you consume to may

calories than you burn or you consume less calories than you

burn. This can lead to either an overweight or underweight


The calories you consume must be consumed from all the

nutrients mentioned above, thus leading to a balanced diet.


Poor diets

Those who do not have a balanced diet can often have

deficiencies in certain nutrients. Most commonly deficiencies,

occur in minerals and vitamins.


Mineral deficiencies

  • Iron deficiencies can lead less red blood cells, which leads to a disease called anemia
  • Iodine deficiencies cause a swelling in the neck, which is called, goiter.
  • Calcium deficiencies can lead to weak bones and teeth



  • Vitamin A is required for healthy eyes and a deficiency can lead to blindness
  • Vitamin C deficiencies can cause gums to bleed
  • Vitamin D is also required for healthy bone growth and a deficiency can lead to the legs to bow outwards, a disease called rickets.



To make use of food, the food has to be broken down in our

gut. Digestion is the process of breaking down large molecules

in to smaller molecules , this process is usually aided by



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