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Study Guide : Photosynthesis


Photosynthesis is the process required by plants to produce

energy. The process involves absorbing the sunlight and

making energy.


Photosynthesis is a very important process in maintaining the

levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide.


Carbon dioxide + water ->  glucose + oxygen


Photosynthesis takes place in plants cells in small sub units 

called chloroplasts which contain a small green pigment

called chlorophyll.

These green pigments help to absorb light and convert light

into energy which can be used by the plant.




Plants get water from the ground through the roots, and they

gain carbon dioxide from the air as it absorbed through the

leaves. The products of photosynthesis are then released

through respiration.


Adaptations of a leaf

The leaf is a very important part of a plant. The leaf is

important in absorbing sunlight but also exchanging gases

such as carbon dioxide with the air surrounding it.




A leaf has many parts. The top of the leaf is known as the

waxy cuticle, which protects the leaf and prevents water loss.

The upper part of the leaf is where the sunlight hits. Therefore

the upper part of the leaf has many palisade cells( cells for

photosynthesis) . These palisade cells have many chloroplasts

and look like the plant cell drawn above.


Carbon Dioxide

Carbon dioxide enters the plant through small pores in the

leaves called stomata. Guard cells control these pores and

help maintain the conditions within the plant and help it adapt

to the conditions outside for example weather.


The lower part of the leaf cell is called the spongy layer. It has

many gaps, which allows the carbon dioxide to move around

and reach other cells.



Water is absorbed from the ground. The roots have root hair

cells, which are adapted to getting the maximum amount of

water from the ground. There are long and thin , which allows

them to reach the maximum area, also they have very thin

walls thus reducing the diffusion distance for water.



1 – what is the equation for photosynthesis?

2 – which pigment helps to absorb sunlight?

3 – Describe the adaptations of a leaf?

4 – which cell is adapted to absorb sunlight?

5 – which cell is adapted to absorb water?

6 – what is the function of the waxy cuticle?



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