Atoms, Electrons and Protons
Everything is made up of particles which are called atoms. Atoms are
made up of tiny particles: neutrons, protons and electrons. Protons
are positively charged and electrons are negatively charged. There are
the same amount of electrons as there are protons, so overall, the
atom has no charge.
Electrons can move from one substance to another. If an atom loses
an electron, it becomes positively charged, as there are more protons
than electrons. If an atom gains an electron, it becomes negatively
charged, as there are more electrons than protons.
When you rub two objects against each other, they become electrically
charged. For example, when you rub a balloon against your hair, the
balloon gains electrons from your hair, leaving your hair positively
charged. This is why your hair will stand up even when the balloon is
not near: each hair is positively charged so will repel the other hairs,
creating static electricity.
Static Electricity is when there is an imbalance of electrical charge
within an object. The balloon and hair in this example have static
electricity because they are electrically charged.