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Learner Guide



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Rocks are solids which are made up of grain. These grains may have 

different shapes, colors and sizes. There are three types of rock: igneous, 

sedimentary&metamorphic. They are all created in very different ways and

have different properties.


Igneous Rock

Igneous rocks are also known as volcanic rock. They are created when a

volcano erupts, releasing magma from the mantle onto the Earth’s crust.


As the lava (the name for magma once it has left the volcano) cools after

reaching the crust, it will form crystals. Depending on the components of

the lava (there are several different types of lava)  and the different rates

of cooling, different types of igneous rock  will be formed.


Sometimes, the magma won’t make it to the surface before cooling and the

rocks made within the volcano have different properties to those made outside.

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