Speciation is the development of a new species, which occur due to
populations of the new species becoming. The species live in a particular
environment separated to such an extent that they develop new
characteristics until they become totally different species.
The process of speciation
⇒ Isolation occurs which separates a population, the isolation occurs due to
a physical barrier
⇒ Conditions on either side of the barrier will be different and therefore the
organism will develop different characteristics due to natural selection
⇒ Each population will show variation and therefore will have a wider range
of alleles, in each population the ones with the preferred characteristics
will survive and pass on those characteristics to the offspring
⇒ Eventually the two populations will be so different to such an extent that if
they were to breed together they would not be able to produce fertile offspring.