Energy Stores and Systems


  • Energy is transferred between stores, it is never used up.
  • The different energy stores energy is stored are: thermal, kinetic, gravitational potential, elastic potential, chemical, magnetic, electrostatic and nuclear
  • Energy is also transferred mechanically (doing work), electrically (moving charges), by heating or by radiation
  • System = single object or group of objects that you’re interested in
  • System changes = energy transferred either into or away from system or between different objects or between different types of energy stores
  • Closed systems = neither matter or energy can enter or leave. Net energy change = always zero
  • Energy can be transferred by heating: boiling water in a kettle. Energy transferred to water by heating into thermal energy store = temp to rise
  • Energy can be transferred by doing work: work done = energy transferred. Current flows = work done.
  • Force exerted to throw a ball up = work done. Chemical energy store → kinetic energy store
  • Ball dropped from a height is accelerated by gravity. Work done = gravitational force. Gravitational potential store → kinetic energy store
  • Friction between brakes of a car and its wheels = work done as it slows down. Kinetic energy store → thermal energy
  • Collison between a car and a stationary object = normal contact force = work done. Kinetic energy → other energy stores (elastic potential, thermal)
  • How long have you…? (present perfect 4) Exercises




    Use the information given to create questions beginning with ‘How long…?’

    • It is snowing.

    • The weather is shining.

    • John and Kate are married.

    • My brother has gone on holiday.

    • My aunty and uncle live in Canada.

    • My sister is a teacher.

    • I work at the chemist.

    • I’ve known Susan since I was a baby.

    • Jonathan is learning to speak to Mandarin.




    Fill in the missing gaps in the sentences using the present perfect (=has/have + past participle)

    • I have known Kate a long time.

    • My brother has been playing the piano he was 11 years old.

    • My mum and dad on holiday to America. They

    gone since last Sunday.

    • I Ben and Emma since primary school.

    We to the same primary and secondary school.

    • My sister learning to speak French because she
    is going to France next month.



    Use the appropriate words in the missing gaps.

    have you lived       lives      to

    has been       works        have known

    I have bought       have worked.

    • My sister in Spain. She is studying Spanish

    with her friend Rosie. I Rosie since I was 5.

    • Spencer like with Jamie. They have worked

    together for 2 years.

    • How long in Australia?

    • a new dress for prom.

    • He to Thorpe park.



    Challenge: Create 4 of your own questions beginning with ‘How long……?’








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