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Reflection and Refraction

    • Light wave = light ray
    • Light rays reflect off mirrors and most other things
    • Specular reflection = when light reflects off smooth shiny surfaces at the same angle, which gives a clear reflection.
    • Diffuse reflection/scattering = when light is scattered in lots of different directions, therefore rough directions look dull.
    • These angles are always measured from thenormal and light ray .
    • Ray diagram:

Reflection and Refraction

    • Refraction = when light bends as it crosses a boundary (from one transparent medium to another)
    • Light can’t pass through opaque objects (not see through)
    • Medium = any substance light travels through
    • Light goes from less dense to denser medium = light bends towards normal (air to glass)
    • light goes from denser to less dense medium = light bends away from normal (glass to air)
    • what happens when light hits a glass block?

1. Light hits glass at an angle = slows down and bends

2. Ray bends towards normal

3. Light ray leaving the glass block = ray bends away from normal

How long have you…? (present perfect 4) Exercises




Use the information given to create questions beginning with ‘How long…?’

• It is snowing.

• The weather is shining.

• John and Kate are married.

• My brother has gone on holiday.

• My aunty and uncle live in Canada.

• My sister is a teacher.

• I work at the chemist.

• I’ve known Susan since I was a baby.

• Jonathan is learning to speak to Mandarin.




Fill in the missing gaps in the sentences using the present perfect (=has/have + past participle)

• I have known Kate a long time.

• My brother has been playing the piano he was 11 years old.

• My mum and dad on holiday to America. They

gone since last Sunday.

• I Ben and Emma since primary school.

We to the same primary and secondary school.

• My sister learning to speak French because she
is going to France next month.



Use the appropriate words in the missing gaps.

have you lived       lives      to

has been       works        have known

I have bought       have worked.

• My sister in Spain. She is studying Spanish

with her friend Rosie. I Rosie since I was 5.

• Spencer like with Jamie. They have worked

together for 2 years.

• How long in Australia?

• a new dress for prom.

• He to Thorpe park.



Challenge: Create 4 of your own questions beginning with ‘How long……?’








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