Wind, Solar and Geothermal


  • These are examples of renewable energy resources
  • Wind farms = lots of wind turbines in exposed places
  • Each turbine has a generator = rotating blades turn generator = electricity produced
  • No pollution
  • Spoil the view as lots of wind turbines needed to replace non-renewable energy resources
  • Can be very noisy
  • Impossible to increase supply of energy when in high demand as wind may stop blowing
  • Initial costs are high
  • No fuel costs and minimal running costs
  • No permanent damage to the landscape if turbines are removed
  • Solar cells = generate current directly from sunlight . (ideal for watches and calculator batteries as don’t require a lot of electricity)
  • Often used in distant places
  • No pollution (but lot of energy required to manufacture firstly)
  • They are only reliable in the daylight
  • Can’t increase energy supply when there is a high demand
  • Like wind farms, initial costs are high but after running costs arelow and the energy is free
  • Geothermal power= energy in underground thermal energy stores
  • Possible in areas which havehot rocks near to the surface or in volcanic areas
  • Source of energy = slow decay of radioactive elements deep inside the earth
  • Free energy, which is reliable and do not damage the environment a huge amount
  • They can directly generate electricity or heat buildings
  • But, aren’t very many suitable locations
  • Cost is high to build a power plant

How long have you…? (present perfect 4) Exercises




Use the information given to create questions beginning with ‘How long…?’

• It is snowing.

• The weather is shining.

• John and Kate are married.

• My brother has gone on holiday.

• My aunty and uncle live in Canada.

• My sister is a teacher.

• I work at the chemist.

• I’ve known Susan since I was a baby.

• Jonathan is learning to speak to Mandarin.




Fill in the missing gaps in the sentences using the present perfect (=has/have + past participle)

• I have known Kate a long time.

• My brother has been playing the piano he was 11 years old.

• My mum and dad on holiday to America. They

gone since last Sunday.

• I Ben and Emma since primary school.

We to the same primary and secondary school.

• My sister learning to speak French because she
is going to France next month.



Use the appropriate words in the missing gaps.

have you lived       lives      to

has been       works        have known

I have bought       have worked.

• My sister in Spain. She is studying Spanish

with her friend Rosie. I Rosie since I was 5.

• Spencer like with Jamie. They have worked

together for 2 years.

• How long in Australia?

• a new dress for prom.

• He to Thorpe park.



Challenge: Create 4 of your own questions beginning with ‘How long……?’








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“Every accomplishment starts 
With the decision to try.” Gail Dever

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