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Conservation of Energy

2 important principles:

  • Energy can never be created or destroyed, it can only ever be transferred from store to store.
  • Energy is only useful when its transferred from one sore to another.
  • Energy transfers aren’t always perfect. Useful energy transfers energy from one store to another. Some energy is always lost-usually by heating. The energy inputted will always end up coming out partly as useful energy and partly as wasted energy. No energy is destroyed.
  • Total Energy Input = The Useful Energy + The Wasted Energy

How to draw an energy transfer diagram?

1. This shows how energy moves from store to store.

2. Rectangles are used to represent the different stores.

Conservation of Energy

  • Arrows are used to show energy transfers. Label with the method of transferring.

How long have you…? (present perfect 4) Exercises




Use the information given to create questions beginning with ‘How long…?’

• It is snowing.

• The weather is shining.

• John and Kate are married.

• My brother has gone on holiday.

• My aunty and uncle live in Canada.

• My sister is a teacher.

• I work at the chemist.

• I’ve known Susan since I was a baby.

• Jonathan is learning to speak to Mandarin.




Fill in the missing gaps in the sentences using the present perfect (=has/have + past participle)

• I have known Kate a long time.

• My brother has been playing the piano he was 11 years old.

• My mum and dad on holiday to America. They

gone since last Sunday.

• I Ben and Emma since primary school.

We to the same primary and secondary school.

• My sister learning to speak French because she
is going to France next month.



Use the appropriate words in the missing gaps.

have you lived       lives      to

has been       works        have known

I have bought       have worked.

• My sister in Spain. She is studying Spanish

with her friend Rosie. I Rosie since I was 5.

• Spencer like with Jamie. They have worked

together for 2 years.

• How long in Australia?

• a new dress for prom.

• He to Thorpe park.



Challenge: Create 4 of your own questions beginning with ‘How long……?’








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