Energy and Waves

  • Waves transfer energy from one place to another, in this way they can alsotransfer information
  • Sound waves do this through vibrations between particles = pressure changes = useful for recording and replaying sounds
  • Vibrations in a sound wave = make a sensitive diaphragm vibrate inside the microphone = converts the vibrations to electric signals = another device can record the electrical signals = sound can be reproduced later
  • Loudspeakers= electric signal is fed into a loudspeaker = this signal causes the diaphragm (thin sheet of paper) to vibrate = air vibrate = sound waves produced
  • Ultrasound = all sounds that have a higher pitch than the normal auditory range of humans

Ultrasonic cleaning

    • = using high-frequency sound waves to


    • things. The vibrations of the pressure waves

remove dirt

    • in

small cracks

    that cannot be normally reached.

  • Item placed in a special bath filled with water.
  • Bubbles formed in cavities (holes) which is caused by high-pressure ultrasound waves.
  • Bubbles remove any dirt (contaminants) leaving It clean.
  • Ultrasound waves can reach inside your body as they transfer energy through matter = can be used to treat aches and pains in hard to access parts of the body, however little evidence that it is effective.

How long have you…? (present perfect 4) Exercises




Use the information given to create questions beginning with ‘How long…?’

• It is snowing.

• The weather is shining.

• John and Kate are married.

• My brother has gone on holiday.

• My aunty and uncle live in Canada.

• My sister is a teacher.

• I work at the chemist.

• I’ve known Susan since I was a baby.

• Jonathan is learning to speak to Mandarin.




Fill in the missing gaps in the sentences using the present perfect (=has/have + past participle)

• I have known Kate a long time.

• My brother has been playing the piano he was 11 years old.

• My mum and dad on holiday to America. They

gone since last Sunday.

• I Ben and Emma since primary school.

We to the same primary and secondary school.

• My sister learning to speak French because she
is going to France next month.



Use the appropriate words in the missing gaps.

have you lived       lives      to

has been       works        have known

I have bought       have worked.

• My sister in Spain. She is studying Spanish

with her friend Rosie. I Rosie since I was 5.

• Spencer like with Jamie. They have worked

together for 2 years.

• How long in Australia?

• a new dress for prom.

• He to Thorpe park.



Challenge: Create 4 of your own questions beginning with ‘How long……?’








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“Every accomplishment starts 
With the decision to try.” Gail Dever

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