• Sound is also a wave, but is LONGITUDINAL = vibration are parallel to direction of wave/direction of energy transfer
  • Compressions = vibrations together (squashed particles together )
  • Rarefactions = vibrations spread
  • Sound waves =vibrating objects
  • Sound needs a medium to travel as it has to pass the vibrations
  • Sound cant travel in vacuum/space as no particles
  • Sound can be reflected , refracted and absorbed
  • Echo = sound being reflected from a surface
  • More particles = faster sound wave travels
  • Denser medium = faster sound travels
  • Solids = waves travel faster
  • Sound travels slower than light
  • Frequency of sound = number of complete waves that pass a point per second
  • High frequency = more vibrations = high pitched sound = measured in Hertz Hz

How long have you…? (present perfect 4) Exercises




Use the information given to create questions beginning with ‘How long…?’

• It is snowing.

• The weather is shining.

• John and Kate are married.

• My brother has gone on holiday.

• My aunty and uncle live in Canada.

• My sister is a teacher.

• I work at the chemist.

• I’ve known Susan since I was a baby.

• Jonathan is learning to speak to Mandarin.




Fill in the missing gaps in the sentences using the present perfect (=has/have + past participle)

• I have known Kate a long time.

• My brother has been playing the piano he was 11 years old.

• My mum and dad on holiday to America. They

gone since last Sunday.

• I Ben and Emma since primary school.

We to the same primary and secondary school.

• My sister learning to speak French because she
is going to France next month.



Use the appropriate words in the missing gaps.

have you lived       lives      to

has been       works        have known

I have bought       have worked.

• My sister in Spain. She is studying Spanish

with her friend Rosie. I Rosie since I was 5.

• Spencer like with Jamie. They have worked

together for 2 years.

• How long in Australia?

• a new dress for prom.

• He to Thorpe park.



Challenge: Create 4 of your own questions beginning with ‘How long……?’








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“Every accomplishment starts 
With the decision to try.” Gail Dever

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