Series Circuits


  • In series circuits = different components connected in a line between the positive and negative ends of the power supply.
  • Voltmeters are ALWAYS connected in parallel.
  • Remove one component = circuit is broken and stopped
  • Potential difference is shared : total voltage = V1 + V2+ V3….
  • Current is thesame everywhere: I1 = I2 = I3 …
  • Resistance adds up: total Resistance = R1 + R2 + R3 ….
  • This is because if you add a resistor, the total amount of resistors must share the total potential difference
  • Potential difference across resistor is lower = current is lower . As current in the same everywhere in a series circuit = total current is reduced when a resistor is added= total resistance increases
  • Bigger a components resistance = bigger share of total potential difference
  • Cell potential differences add up =bigger potential difference when more cells in series.

How long have you…? (present perfect 4) Exercises




Use the information given to create questions beginning with ‘How long…?’

• It is snowing.

• The weather is shining.

• John and Kate are married.

• My brother has gone on holiday.

• My aunty and uncle live in Canada.

• My sister is a teacher.

• I work at the chemist.

• I’ve known Susan since I was a baby.

• Jonathan is learning to speak to Mandarin.




Fill in the missing gaps in the sentences using the present perfect (=has/have + past participle)

• I have known Kate a long time.

• My brother has been playing the piano he was 11 years old.

• My mum and dad on holiday to America. They

gone since last Sunday.

• I Ben and Emma since primary school.

We to the same primary and secondary school.

• My sister learning to speak French because she
is going to France next month.



Use the appropriate words in the missing gaps.

have you lived       lives      to

has been       works        have known

I have bought       have worked.

• My sister in Spain. She is studying Spanish

with her friend Rosie. I Rosie since I was 5.

• Spencer like with Jamie. They have worked

together for 2 years.

• How long in Australia?

• a new dress for prom.

• He to Thorpe park.



Challenge: Create 4 of your own questions beginning with ‘How long……?’








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“Every accomplishment starts 
With the decision to try.” Gail Dever

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